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Mother’s failed appeal indicates difficulty of overturning findings of fact

Often in proceedings relating to arrangements for children following parental separation one party will make allegations against the other that are so serious that they could have a crucial bearing upon the outcome of the case. Obviously, the court must make findings in relation to those allegations, and it often does so at a ‘fact-finding’ hearing.

As we will see in a moment, it is very difficult to overturn the findings of the court, and it is therefore essential that each party put their case as well as possible at the fact-finding hearing. This makes me wonder just how parents manage when they don’t have the benefit of legal representation –  one can imagine many cases turning out quite differently than they would have done had representation been available (although I should point out that legal aid, and therefore legal representation, should be available if the allegations involve domestic abuse).

None of which is intended to be any sort of criticism of the mother or her legal team in the case M v F (Appeal : Fact Finding), which is the subject of this post – I mention the case merely, as the title of this post states, to indicate the difficulty that parties face if the court’s findings go against them.

Now there was a lot going on in M v F, in particular regarding the details of the allegations, and I don’t need to go into those details for the purpose of this post (and in any event, to do so would make this post unmanageably long). Instead, I will take the unusual (for me) course of concentrating on the applicable law, rather than on the facts or findings of the case itself.

Basically the case concerned cross-applications by the father for a child arrangements order, and by the mother for a non-molestation order. The mother made various allegations against the father, including that he had used serious violence against her, that he had used controlling and coercive and abusive behaviour, and that he had used force against the child. The father denied the allegations.

A fact-finding hearing took place. Essentially the court found most of the allegations unproved. In particular the court found that the father did not pose any direct risk of physical harm to the child, or any psychological risk to the mother. The mother applied for permission to appeal against the findings.

The mother’s application went before Mr Justice Williams in the High Court. He set out the law on appeals against findings of fact, including the following points:

  1. Permission to appeal may be given only where the court considers that the appeal would have a real prospect of success, or there is some other compelling reason why the appeal should be heard. (Incidentally, in the report it states that Mr Justice Williams used the word ‘and’, instead of ‘or’. If so, that is, with respect, incorrect.)
  2. In the absence of some other identifiable error, such as a material error of law, or the making of a critical finding of fact which has no basis in the evidence, or a demonstrable misunderstanding of relevant evidence, or a demonstrable failure to consider relevant evidence, an appellate court will interfere with the findings of fact made by a trial judge only if it is satisfied that his decision cannot reasonably be explained or justified.
  3. Where a question of fact has been tried by a judge, and there is no question of misdirection of himself by the judge, an appellate court which is disposed to come to a different conclusion on the printed evidence, should not do so unless it is satisfied that any advantage enjoyed by the trial judge by reason of having seen and heard the witnesses, could not be sufficient to explain or justify the trial judge’s conclusion.
  4. The appellate court may take the view that, without having seen or heard the witnesses, it is not in a position to come to any satisfactory conclusion on the printed evidence.

As will be seen, this sets a high bar for the appellant. In particular, the law recognises the advantage that the original judge had in hearing the evidence first-hand – the appellate court can only make its decision based upon the paper, or printed, evidence, including the transcript of the fact-finding hearing. And look at the words I have highlighted in paragraph 2 above. It doesn’t matter if the judge hearing the appeal may have made different findings: they should only interfere if the original findings cannot reasonably be explained or justified.

Back to the case itself, Mr Justice Williams did not consider that any of the mother’s grounds of appeal had a realistic prospect of success in demonstrating either that the original findings were wrong, or that they were unjust by reason of a procedural irregularity. Accordingly, he refused the mother permission to appeal.

You can read a full report of the judgment here.

John Bolch often wonders how he ever became a family lawyer. He no longer practises, but has instead earned a reputation as one of the UK's best-known family law bloggers, with his content now supporting our divorce lawyers and child custody lawyers

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  1. Stitchedup says:

    This article exemplifies wonderfully why findings of fact should not be called “findings of fact”. Calling a best guess a fact is arrogant in the extreme and the courts make a mockery of so called justice when in they’re own admission two judges can come to different “findings”. So how the courts have the audacity to call their findings a finding of fact??? they’re not even tested to the criminal standard of proof!!! Calling a finding determined on the basis of probability a fact is absurd and portrays a macabre side of the family courts. All that said, the courts are probably sick and tired of hearing “he’s an abuser!!!, I want a non a non-mol, he’s controlling “…. yawn… yawn.

    • Anonymous Sheffield says:

      I must say that findings of fact hearings are deeply flawed and judges can be misled into making serious findings against other parent simply because one parent is more dominating in making allegations. Fake pictures, fake police abuse calls, partners who want to build up a case of abuse against their other halfs will go to her GP and lie with breathtaking fake allegations to build up a horror story without an iota of evidence. Equally the GPs will duly record non-sense allegations without anyone questioning the other parent whether this is true. This is shown to the Judge during the hearing and other partner is a dead duck. Deeply flawed and abusive system when one parent/partner cannot simply deal with their anxieties in life make fake abusive allegations against other parent. This warrants jail time for partners who make fake allegations. If the above post is true and the female actually made fake allegations of abuse she needs to be sent to prision, simple.

      • Rachel says:

        I agree. False allegations were made of domestic assault against my son defined as vulnerable and had I not recorded the incident on loyd speaker my son would have been left up the creak without a paddle. The interviewing officer faces were a picture when it was clear that my son had been assaulted. No further action taken by the police not even the party proven to have made malicious and false allegations and wasting police resources . Adding insult to injury having obtained A non molestation order the police have failed to protect my son and arrest his abuser who has repeatedly breached the order expediently in all accounts on the basis of her being pregnant and recently giving birth thus allowing her to osyscgolucallyvandvemitiinallt abuse my sons denying hun the right to see his baby son purported to have been in intensive care. It should be recognised that men too can be victims of domestic violence and the law should come down in those who continue to make a mockery of the law and their victims. It is evident as Mothers automatically have parental responsibility and are allowed to use their children to ransom it seems without any timely recourse thus denying a victim and father contact from the outset of life!!

        • Hamsaddle says:

          Anonymous Sheffield – this happened to me. My ex-wife was extremely controlling, she wouldn’t even allow me a mobile phone. Each time I caught her other controlling behaviour e.g. reading my emails or finding a bank statement with £35k in it (whilst I was in debt trying to pay all the bills) she made a false allegation to the school and doctors. When I asked for a divorce, you can guess what happened. I was arrested and hit with an NMO.

          After 10 hearings, at the FOF, the judge then said I couldn’t make findings against her controlling behaviour as they weren’t specific examples. Controlling behaviour by definition must take place ‘repeatedly or continuously’.

          All the findings were found against me including allegations I had made against her. (I was found to have smashed my own belongings in arguments.) I now have to admit to things I’ve not done to go on a DAPP course in order to have any hope of seeing my son again. The worst thing about this is the judge even described the case as “sad” because he acknowledged the very loving relationship between me and my son. (So, I am an abusive husband but a wonderful father? These things obviously go hand in hand.) All I had to do in order to see him is to acknowledge my abusive behaviour against my ex-wife (to go on the DAPP course.) This appears to me as blackmail. Should I just lie to CAFCASS and say what they want to hear? How will I ever see my son again?

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